After admiring her photos, I asked Beth Waterbury, wildlife biologist – scroll to the end to read more about her and her profession – about how she manages to take such wonderful photographs. Here’s what she wrote. Thanks, Beth!
What sort of equipment do you need to take good pictures of wildlife?
A big question! Endless books and blogs have been written on this subject with wide-ranging opinions. I’ll give you my 2 cents, but I encourage you to read up on the many options. For starters, and stating the obvious, you’ll need a good digital camera and lens. But first, you’ll need to determine your price range and budget, as that will narrow down your camera choices.
Your next big decision will be choosing between: 1) a digital SLR (single-lens reflex) camera (DSLR); 2) a mirrorless camera (point-and-shoot); or 3) a “bridge” camera (hybrid of #1 and #2). https://www.digitalcameraworld.com/features/dslr-vs-mirrorless-cameras-how-do-they-compare I have both DSLR and mirrorless cameras and I much prefer the DSLR. A DSLR camera has an optical viewfinder while the mirrorless camera has a digital display screen. I find it much easier to look through a viewfinder for both image clarity and to follow moving objects like birds. Often in daylight conditions, I find it hard to see a mirrorless camera screen, plus there is a “lag” or slower focus in the technology. And if you wear glasses, or need magnifiers for close work like I do, the DSLR viewfinder accommodates your “naked eye,” making it much more efficient and less frustrating than looking at a digital screen and juggling glasses while missing shots. Another important factor for me between DSLR and mirrorless is battery life. DSLR cameras have much better battery life than mirrorless cameras do. A DSLR will take up to 4,000 frames per charge to a mirrorless camera’s 350-400 frames per charge. If you’re out on a day’s adventure taking bird photos, you’re going to want that longer battery life.
Other camera/lens considerations:
- Autofocus (AF) – very important for bird/wildlife photography. Autofocus gets you efficiently focused in on a subject that isn’t going to sit there long! As a general rule, the more AF points a camera has, the better the Autofocus (but this adds to camera cost).
- Low light performance – morning and sunset are some of the best times to view birds, but can mean challenging light situations. You’ll want a camera with a good image sensor (ISO). By increasing a camera’s ISO, photos become progressively brighter, helping you capture images in darker environments.
- Lens compatibility – make sure your camera is compatible with different lenses. When photographing birds and nature, you will want to change out lenses for close-ups (macro) or distance (super telephoto). One reason of many why Nikon and Canon are my go-to cameras is because they carry so many compatible lenses (the ‘used’ selection is excellent as well).
- Weight and size – important to consider if you’re frequently lugging a camera around! You want to be sure your camera is comfortable to use. DSLR’s are bigger, fatter, chunkier, more ‘grippable,’ and the settings are a bit larger so they’re easier to manipulate. Mirrorless are much smaller, lighter weight, but the controls are proportionally smaller, so it’s more difficult to change settings.
- Fast shooting speeds – with birds, a lot can happen in one second! Opt for a camera that offers ‘high speed continuous shooting.’ Lower-priced DSLR’s can do 3 frames/second, but some of the better (nee expensive) cameras can shoot 10+ frames/second.
- USB cable for charging – a portable, travel-friendly, and convenient method for recharging a camera battery. This is not a deal breaker, but I use the USB cable for charging all the time and not all cameras offer this option.
- Warranty – it’s always helpful to know how long the warranty is effective and what it covers.
- Lenses – arguably the most important part of your camera package. You want a lens that has adequate zoom (up to 300mm or higher), quality glass, and is durable. This takes a bit of research and $$$. Note that camera lenses are often sold separately from camera bodies.
- Used equipment – consider buying a used camera and/or lenses (e.g., Nikon, Canon); this allows you to get more camera for your $$$. Also check out camera packages from Costco; they have some great deals on DSLR and point-and-shoot bundles that include 2 lenses, including a 75-300mm.
You might also want to invest in a sturdy tripod to mount your camera, especially when taking zoomed shots. It’s really tough getting crisp images when hand-holding a camera at full zoom.
Do you have any tips with respect to technique?
It’s hard to beat early mornings to maximize bird encounters; plus the lighting is lovely for photography. Sunset is also a good time; you get that flooded, angled light that can be so stunning. Try to shoot your subjects with the sun at your back, even on cloudy days.
When it comes to photographing birds and wildlife in general, closer is not always better. Too close and they will flush or become unduly stressed. Ethical bird photography is a thing: first do no harm. Use distance to your advantage by using the background habitat to nicely compose your photos.
I don’t know if you have bird feeders in your yard (or if you have a yard!), but setting up a backyard feeding station is a very productive way to get great bird photos. Position your feeder(s) so your lighting comes from behind you. Set up a “blind” – in your house and shoot through an open, unscreened window, or set up a blind outdoors with a comfy chair and tripod. Position the feeder near natural perches with a good, level line-of-sight and a clean, uncluttered background (or adjust to a wide aperture so background is soft focus).
In the field, again be mindful of lighting making sure light is directly behind you when photographing birds. Find a spot to sit and observe quietly with minimal movement and patiently wait for some bird action. While walking along, keep your eyes scanning ahead of you for movement on the ground and the different layers of the canopy. When birds are spotted, approach slowly and quietly. Get to know some local areas that birds frequent at certain times of day, conceal yourself as best you can, and get your camera in hand ready for their arrival.
Key in on birdsong and approach songsters slowly and cautiously, stopping frequently with camera at-ready to photograph the bird. Taking video of birds in full-throated song is especially rewarding.
Here are some great tools & techniques for photographing birds from the Audubon website: https://www.audubon.org/photography/how-tos
Is there a good time of day to try to get photos?
I think I addressed this above, but to reiterate, early morning (sunrise to ~9:00am) and the couple hours before sunset are hard to beat for dramatic lighting and background. These times are hands down the most productive times for encountering birds, as they are actively feeding in preparation for the day or night.
Is there any bird that you have wanted to photograph but could not? The one that got away?
Ah, yes – there are a few. Varied Thrush, Montezuma Quail, and Varied Bunting. They all got away. There are many, many more I’ve snapped lousy photos of that I’d like a do-over.
Which bird were you most satisfied to photograph? (Here I’m talking about the bird, not the photo.)
That’s a tough question, as there have been many that were fun, exciting, challenging, and/or satisfying to photograph. If I had to pick one, I think it would be the Bobolink. The combination of the male’s loud, bubbling song, its striking “reverse tuxedo” plumage, and the vibrant green of its meadow habitat have made for some extraordinary photography sessions.
Your bio says you’re a wildlife biologist. What does that mean exactly? What do you do?
A ‘wildlife biologist’ collects and analyzes data about animals (plants too) in their native environment, typically through fieldwork. This may include designing and conducting surveys or research; investigating the ecology, physiology, genetics, or behavior of a wildlife species; assessing the state of wildlife habitats; addressing human-wildlife interactions; making decisions and recommendations regarding wildlife management and policies; and communicating with different constituencies about nature conservation.
The duties of wildlife biologists will vary widely depending on employer. Wildlife biologists are hired by federal agencies (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, National Parks, Bureau of Land Mgmt., etc.), state agencies (e.g., Idaho Dept. of Fish & Game, Missouri Dept. of Conservation), municipal agencies (e.g., Parks & Recs, urban biologist), academia (e.g., research co-ops, professors), private industry (e.g., environmental consulting firms, energy industry), and NGOs (e.g., The Nature Conservancy, Audubon, Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation). Many of the wildlife bio’s in the federal agencies and private industry are what I call “mitigation biologists” – they basically write biological assessments on effects to wildlife from land management actions (often adverse to the species), such as timber harvest, livestock grazing, mining, fracking, utility installation, etc. Some of the key skills for this profession are communications, organization, writing skills, observation, data gathering, analysis, and use of the scientific method.
I am recently retired but I spent my entire 33-yr. career working for the state fish & wildlife agencies of California, Oregon, and Idaho. In northern California I worked on mule deer research, collaring and tracking mule deer from winter ranges to summer ranges and restoring deer winter range habitat. In Oregon, I worked as a regional wildlife biologist focusing on wildlife habitat restoration, then managed a statewide habitat program to incentivize wildlife management on private lands. For Idaho, I worked 16 years as the ‘wildlife diversity biologist’ for the Salmon Region in east-central Idaho. This entailed surveys, studies, and management of wildlife species designated as ‘Species of Greatest Conservation Need’ – so think endangered, threatened, sensitive, and wildlife species for which little data exists. The critters in my purview were birds, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates, bats, and rare carnivores like fisher and wolverine. I would typically conduct one or two new surveys each year (say for wetland birds, or a winter survey for wolverine) on top of annual monitoring of breeding bald eagles, ospreys, and peregrine falcons. All the time in between involved annual surveys for big game species (elk, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, pronghorn), conservation education projects with various partners (interpretive signs, school programs, articles for blogs & newsletters), and the ‘mitigation’ duties I mentioned previously. By far, my favorite job was with Idaho where I felt I made a difference for at-risk wildlife, partners, and the public. A couple of the projects that gave me the greatest sense of accomplishment were being lead on the Management Plan for the Conservation of Wolverine in Idaho, rediscovering a rare grasshopper species thought to be extinct, and leading a statewide survey for monarch butterflies and milkweeds in Idaho. My research on monarchs/milkweeds led me to serve as the editor of the Western Monarch Butterfly Conservation Plan after I retired. Anyway, this gives you a flavor of how diverse the title of ‘wildlife biologist’ can be.
Thanks, Beth, for sharing some time with us! I certainly learned a lot. Note if anyone reading this wants to contact Beth Waterbury, contact me (Victoria Grossack) via the Contact page (see the menu above) and I will forward your message to her.
“Try, and again try, till you win or till you die.” — Junkyard Abner, in Hunters of the Feather.